Widespread adoption of sustainable consumption at the global level

Widespread adoption of sustainable consumption at the global level will

not be easy because:

A.sustainable consumption requires the eradication of poverty which

requires that poor people increase their consumption of certain essential

resources to improve the quality of their lives and these resources are

no longer available.

B.sustainable consumption requires that the consumption patterns of

people in highly developed countries must change to allow for the

eradication of poverty and such changes in the lifestyles of people in

highly developed countries is a challenge.

C.sustainable consumption requires that everyone embrace voluntary

simplicity on a compulsory basis and while this is supported by

politicians, economists are not in support.

D.sustainable consumption requires the excessive reliance on global

resources that will result in a tragedy of the commons



What is a potential shortcoming in achieving environmental justice?

A.It is more expensive to clean-up hazardous waste in low-income

communities because of the lack of technical skill in these communities.

B.Residents of low-income and minority communities have less involvement

in the political process and may not even be aware of their exposure to

increased levels of pollutants.

C.Minority communities tend to get more cooperation from government

agencies that can help them.

D.Too many programs exist to serve the environmental justice needs of

low-income and minority communities and these are often in competition

with each other making it hard to accomplish the goals.



A type of sustainable consumption which recognizes that individual

happiness and quality of life are not necessarily linked to the

accumulation of material goods but rather that a person’s values and

character define that individual more than how many things he or she own

is known as:

A. environmental ethics

B. sustainable development

C. environmental justice

D. A deep ecology worldview.

E. Child labor.

F. voluntary simplicity

G. Sustainable consumption.



Why is a risk analysis usually performed in solving environmental


A.To solicit public opinion about how evidence should be interpreted

when selection a course of action.

B.To analyze the potential effect of an intervention versus doing


C.To monitor the initial assessment and modeling of the problem.

D.To provide public awareness and endorsement.



Which of the following statements associated with poverty is CORRECT?

1) Poverty is defined as having a per person income of less than $2 per

day, expressed in U.S. dollars adjusted for purchasing power.

2) The number of people living in poverty has been steadily declining and

today less than one billion people live in poverty worldwide.

3) Poverty is a condition in which people are unable to meet their basic

needs for food, clothing, shelter, education, or health.

A.1 only

B.2 only

C.3 only

D.Both 1 and 3 apply as descriptions of poverty.



Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the nature of natural resources

and their use by people?

A.Slowing down the rate of population growth as well as reducing

resource consumption levels will allow for more time to develop

technological advances to find alternatives to non-renewable

B.Even renewable resources must be used in a manner that allows for them

to replenish or replace themselves and thus these resources should more

accurately be considered potentially renewable and not be overexploited.

C.Developing countries are often faced with the difficult choice between

exploiting natural resources to provide for their expanding populations

in the short term (to pay for food or to cover debts) or conserving those

resources for future generations.

D.Poverty does not impose any pressures on natural resources as the poor

use barely any resources at all and what they do use is used very

carefully and wisely for long term survival.



tion 8 of 25

4.0 Points

Which of the following is the BEST example of sustainable consumption?

A.Constructing a small house on farmland on the edge of town and

carpooling to work.

B.Flying to the Bahamas for a weekend getaway.

C.Preparing a meal at home with food bought at the local farmers market.

D.Purchasing five pairs of shoes at a local minority owned business.



How does science obtain knowledge about the world?

A.By an interactive process of experimentation, which refines hypotheses

until they are finally proven to be the absolute truth.

B.By relying on scientific authorities and the massive amount of

knowledge already obtained to explain new data.

C.By systematically gathering evidence and discarding potential

explanations that do not fit the evidence, and refining those that do fit

the evidence.

D.By conducting experiments designed to support hypotheses as being

correct beyond reasonable doubt.



All of the following statements describe environmental science EXCEPT:

A.The goal of environmental science is to try to establish general

principles about how the natural world functions.

B.Environmental scientists seek to develop viable solutions to

environmental problems that are based as much as possible on scientific


C.Since environmental problems are generally complex and scientific

understanding of them is often less complete, environmental scientists

are often called on to reach scientific consensus before the data are


D.No exceptions, all of the above statements describe environmental




Which of the following interact to promote sustainable development?


1 Economically viable decisions

2 Socially equitable decisions

3 Environmentally sound decisions

4 High rate of resources use

5 Rapid population growth

A.1 and 3

B.2 and 4

C.1, 2, and 3

D.3,4, and 5



What does the phrase “environmental sustainability” imply?

A.The actions of humans directly impact the wellbeing of the natural


B.Future generations will have the resources necessary for quality of


C.A shared global responsibility is necessary for conservation


D.All of the above are implied by environmental sustainability.



If economic decisions are to be sustainable they will have to consider

which of the following?

A.political costs

B.environmental costs

C.societal costs

D.environmental and societal costs both must be considered



What is meant by food insecurity?

A.The potential decline in agricultural productivity due to reduced soil

fertility as a result of multi-cropping.

B.The condition in which people live with chronic hunger and

malnutrition likely due to poverty.

C.The increased pressures on food production as a result of increases in

global population.

D.The potential decline in agricultural productivity due to conservation




The use of goods and services that satisfy basic human needs, improve the

quality of life but minimize resource use is referred to as:

A.sustainable consumption

B.master planned communities

C.environmental justice

D.organic agriculture



stion 18 of 25

4.0 Points

The deep ecology world view most closely resembles the:

A.Western worldview

B.utilitarian conservationist attitude

C.frontier attitude

D.biocentric preservationist attitude



In order to estimate human impact on the environment we can

A.multiply the number of people times affluence per person times

resources used and wastes produced (I=P x A x T)

B.multiply resource depletion times number of years divided by number of

people (I = R x Y ÷ P)

C.multiply birth rate times consumption patterns divided by available

resources (I= B x C ÷ R)

D.Divide number of people by resources needed and wastes produced (I = P

÷ T)



Global sustainable development depends on eradication of poverty in the

developing world. What is the consequence of this?

A.Developing countries will consume at the same levels as developed

countries today.

B.Poor people will need to move to cities increasing urban air


C.Developing countries will be forced into deforestation in order to

meet their economic needs.

D.Poor people in developing countries need to increase their consumption

of certain essential resources.



A journalist reports on what Garrett Hardin (in 1968) referred to as a

“Tragedy of the Commons”? The media story concerns:

A.the technology divide that exists between the social classes of

poverty and elite

B.the environmental costs that everyone must pay in the long run due to

individual exploitation of resources for short-term gains.

C.a disaster that happened in the park

D.the environmental costs that a widespread natural disaster brings to

all walks of life



In order for a country to progress from a less developed country (LDC) to

a moderately developed country (MDC), the country would have to:

A.increase rate of population growth.

B.move from industry to agricultural economy base.

C.raise the per-capita income.

D.increase their unskilled labor force.



A state agency has contacted you to do a scientific assessment of kudzu

in a nature preserve in southern Georgia. They are concerned about the

effects of the non-native invasive vine on a small rare plant that grows

on the forest floor in the preserve, but which is found nowhere else in

the state. Kudzu is only growing in the east side of the preserve because

it hasn’t yet had time to invade further. In order to assess the effects

of kudzu on the rare plant, you set up the following experiment:


Site 1. On the east side of the park with the kudzu, you set up ten 1m x

1m plots on the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of

individuals of the rare plant.

Site 2. On the west side of the park without the kudzu, you set up ten 1m

x 1m plots of the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of

individuals of the rare plant.


Which of the following represents the hypothesis that you are testing

with this experiment?

A.Kudzu will eventually grow on the west side of the park.

B.Kudzu will kill off the trees in the preserve by strangling them.

C.Kudzu should be removed from the preserve because it is killing the

rare plant.

D.Kudzu is negatively affecting populations of the rare plant in the




A personal perspective based on a collection of basic values and beliefs

about how the environment works, that helps us make sense of our place

and purpose in it, and determine right and wrong behaviors describes:

A.Environmental ethics

B.Environmental worldview

C.Voluntary simplicity

D.Deep ecology



All of the following statements regarding the need for environmental

justice and the challenges in accomplishing its goals are true EXCEPT:

A.Research evidence suggests that minority communities tend to follow

NIMBY ideals and thus get less cooperation from government agencies that

could help them.

B.Residents of low-income and minority communities have less involvement

in the political process and may not even be aware of their exposure to

increased levels of pollutants.

C.Many studies indicate that hazardous waste facilities, sanitary

landfills, and incinerators are more likely to be located in low-income

and minority communities.

D.Currently, we have little scientific evidence showing to what extent a

polluted environment is responsible for the disproportionate health

problems of poor and minority communities.



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