Ps300-unit 7-assignment | Psychology homework help

Journal of Abnormal Psychology
2012, Vol. 121, No. 1, 95–108

© 2011 American Psychological Association
0021-843X/11/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0025078

A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Neighborhood
Disadvantage on Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems
Jackson A. Goodnight

Benjamin B. Lahey

University of Dayton

University of Chicago

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Carol A. Van Hulle

Joseph L. Rodgers

University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Oklahoma

Paul J. Rathouz

Irwin D. Waldman

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Emory University

Brian M. D’Onofrio
Indiana University
A quasi-experimental comparison of cousins differentially exposed to levels of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) was used with extensive measured covariates to test the hypothesis that neighborhood risk has
independent effects on youth conduct problems (CPs). Multilevel analyses were based on mother-rated
ND and both mother-reported CPs across 4 –13 years (n 7,077) and youth-reported CPs across 10 –13
years (n
4,524) from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. ND was robustly
related to CPs reported by both informants when controlling for both measured risk factors that are
correlated with ND and unmeasured confounds. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that
ND has influence on conduct problems.
Keywords: neighborhoods, quasi-experiments, cousin comparisons, conduct problems, delinquency

several reasons. One possibility is that environmental factors
inherent in such high-risk neighborhoods exert causal influences on conduct problems (CPs). Another possibility is that
individual- and family level factors that are correlated with neighborhood disadvantage (ND), such as inadequate parental supervision and low family income, actually cause increased risk for CPs, with the relation between ND and youth CPs being noncausal. At present, the existing research literature does not clearly support either of these alternative explanations more than the other. This is an important shortcoming, as determining whether ND is a causal risk factor for CPs or only a spurious correlate would have major implications for prevention science and public policy (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000).

Children growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods characterized by poverty, low levels of social organization and cohesion, and high levels of residential instability and crime are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes, including academic failure, depression and anxiety, teenage pregnancy,
and conduct problems (Harding, 2003; Leventhal & BrooksGunn, 2000; Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997). These children may experience increased risk for these outcomes for

This article was published Online First September 26, 2011.
Jackson A. Goodnight, Department of Psychology, University of Dayton; Benjamin B. Lahey, Department of Health Sciences, University of Chicago; Carol A. Van Hulle, Waisman Center, University of WisconsinMadison; Joseph L. Rodgers, Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma; Paul J. Rathouz, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Irwin D. Waldman, Department of Psychology, Emory University;
Brian M. D’Onofrio, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University.
This research was supported by grants R01-MH070025 and R01HD061384 to Benjamin B. Lahey. The research was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Indiana University and the University of
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jackson A. Goodnight, Department of Psychology, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-1430. E-mail:

Factors Associated With the Magnitude of
Correlations With Neighborhood Characteristics
A review of regional and national studies found that ND is
associated with higher levels of CPs, including defiant, aggressive,
and delinquent behaviors, in childhood and adolescence (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000). These studies varied widely in their
estimates of the magnitude of the association, however, with some
studies finding no main effect association at all (e.g., Beyers,
Bates, Pettit, & Dodge, 2003; Lynam et al., 2000). Understanding
the sources of these inconsistencies in findings may shed light on
how research on neighborhood effects should proceed.

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Measurement of Neighborhood Risk
Inconsistencies in findings from previous studies may result
from differences in measurement of neighborhood characteristics.
Some studies used census-based measures of neighborhood characteristics, whereas others used maternal ratings of neighborhood
risks. Although there is some evidence that these approaches
capture similar information (e.g., Ingoldsby & Shaw, 2002; Sampson, 1997), some studies have found differences depending on
measurement approach. Ingoldsby and Shaw (2002) found that
mother-reported neighborhood characteristics independently predicted trajectories of CPs, whereas census-based measures of
neighborhood characteristics were not associated with CP trajectories after controlling for measured covariates. Sampson et al.
(1997) have demonstrated that census-based measures of economic disadvantage and residential instability exert an indirect
influence on conduct problems by contributing to low levels of
informal social control. Thus, measuring neighborhood social processes may provide a more direct estimate of neighborhood risk.
However, it is also possible that differences in effects of ND across
measurement approaches may be influenced by shared method
bias in cases where caregivers report on both ND and conduct


This is a two page paper based on the attache article.

Download a copy of the article and write a brief summary of the:

1. Reason for the study.

2. Research question(s).

3. Hypothesis

4. Conclusions

5. How this research would be relevant to a professional working in your field of study?

Organize your assignment into the following sections:

Title of study:

APA reference:

Reason for study:

Research question(s):



Relevance to field:

Your assignment should be a brief 1-2 page synopsis. Save your assignment as a Word Document.

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Quality Papers

We value our clients. For this reason, we ensure that each paper is written carefully as per the instructions provided by the client. Our editing team also checks all the papers to ensure that they have been completed as per the expectations.

Professional Academic Writers

Over the years, our Acme Homework has managed to secure the most qualified, reliable and experienced team of writers. The company has also ensured continued training and development of the team members to ensure that it keep up with the rising Academic Trends.

Affordable Prices

Our prices are fairly priced in such a way that ensures affordability. Additionally, you can get a free price quotation by clicking on the "Place Order" button.

On-Time delivery

We pay strict attention on deadlines. For this reason, we ensure that all papers are submitted earlier, even before the deadline indicated by the customer. For this reason, the client can go through the work and review everything.

100% Originality

At Essay USA, all papers are plagiarism-free as they are written from scratch. We have taken strict measures to ensure that there is no similarity on all papers and that citations are included as per the standards set.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support team is readily available to provide any guidance/help on our platform at any time of the day/night. Feel free to contact us via the Chat window or support email:

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Essay USA has stood as the world’s leading custom essay writing services providers. Once you enter all the details in the order form under the place order button, the rest is up to us.


Essay Writing Services

At Essay USA, we prioritize on all aspects that bring about a good grade such as impeccable grammar, proper structure, zero-plagiarism and conformance to guidelines. Our experienced team of writers will help you completed your essays and other assignments.


Admission and Business Papers

Be assured that you’ll definitely get accepted to the Master’s level program at any university once you enter all the details in the order form. We won’t leave you here; we will also help you secure a good position in your aspired workplace by creating an outstanding resume or portfolio once you place an order.


Editing and Proofreading

Our skilled editing and writing team will help you restructure you paper, paraphrase, correct grammar and replace plagiarized sections on your paper just on time. The service is geared toward eliminating any mistakes and rather enhancing better quality.


Technical papers

We have writers in almost all fields including the most technical fields. You don’t have to worry about the complexity of your paper. Simply enter as much details as possible in the place order section.