philosophy question and answers

Learning Goal: I’m working on a criminal justice question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

1. What does it mean to say: “To study for a test is a necessary condition for passing the test.” (apply this definition).

2. Identify the following fallacies:

a) God does not exist because every argument for the existence of God has been shown to be unsound.

b) Smoking causes cancer because my father was a smoker and he died of lung cancer.

c) We have no evidence showing that he is innocent. So he must be guilty.

3. Of these 2 deductive arguments, tell if valid or invalid and if valid whether sound or unsound.

a) All triangles have three sides. Therefore all pigs have four legs.

b) Socrates is a man. Men are quadrupeds. Therefore Socrates is quadruped.

4. Of these 2 inductive arguments. Tell if they are strong or weak.

a) As far as we know, every Marmot Day we’ve had has been held in freezing whether. So, probably, this Marmot Day will be held in freezing whether.

b) The last fifty lottery tickets that Francis purchased have been losers. Therefore, the next one he buys is virtually certain to be a winner.

5. Tell whether these examples are logically, or causally possible (logical @ causal possibility)

a) Superman is not causally possible.

b) A squared circle is logically impossible, though it is causally possible.

c) Aliens are not logically possible.

d) A line without points is logically possible.

For the following questions, click here for my lecture.

6. What does it mean to say that Plato is an idealist? Explain.

7. Within the program of skepticism, is there an advantage in suspending judgment?

8. Explain the role of “doubt” in Descartes’ Rationalism.

9. Is the read apple red if no one sees it? Explain using Locke’s ideas of primary and secondary qualities.

10. Why is Kant a synthesis between Rationalism and Empiricism? Explain.

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